How do I declare and initialize an array in Java?

0 votes
asked Jul 29, 2009 by bestattendance

How do I declare and initialize an array in Java?

16 Answers

0 votes
answered Jul 29, 2009 by thomas-owens


// Either method works
String arrayName[] = new String[10];
String[] arrayName = new String[10];

That declares an array called arrayName of size 10 (you have elements 0 through 9 to use).

0 votes
answered Jul 29, 2009 by anirudh

There are a various ways in which you can declare an array in Java:

float floatArray[]; //initialize later
int[] integerArray = new int[10];
String[] array = new String[] {"a", "b"};

You can find more information on the Sun Tutorial site and the JavaDoc.

0 votes
answered Jul 29, 2009 by nate
Type[] variableName = new Type[capacity];

Type[] variableName = {comma-delimited values};

Type variableName[] = new Type[capacity]; 

Type variableName[] = {comma-delimited values};

is also valid, but I prefer the brackets after the type, because it's easier to see that the variable's type is actually an array.

0 votes
answered Jul 29, 2009 by chet

I find it is helpful if you understand each part:

Type[] name = new Type[5];

Type[] is the type of the variable called name ("name" is called the identifier). The literal "Type" is the base type, and the brackets mean this is the array type of that base. Array types are in turn types of their own, which allows you to make multidimensional arrays like Type[][] (the array type of Type[]). The keyword new says to allocate memory for the new array. The number between the bracket says how large the new array will be and how much memory to allocate. For instance, if Java knows that the base type Type takes 32 bytes, and you want an array of size 5, it needs to internally allocate 32 * 5 = 160 bytes.

You can also create arrays with the values already there, such as

int[] name = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};

which not only creates the empty space but fills it with those values. Java can tell that the primitives are integers and that there are 5 of them, so the size of the array can be determined implicitly.

0 votes
answered Jul 29, 2009 by dave

Also, in case you want something more dynamic there is the List interface. This will not perform as well, but is more flexible:

List<String> listOfString = new ArrayList<String>();


String value = listOfString.get(0);
assertEquals( value, "foo" );
0 votes
answered Jun 4, 2013 by amit-bhandari

The following shows the declaration of an array, but the array is not initialized:

 int[] myIntArray = new int[3];

The following shows the declaration as well as initialization of the array:

int[] myIntArray = {1,2,3};

Now, the following also shows the declaration as well as initialization of the array:

int[] myIntArray = new int[]{1,2,3};

But this third one shows the property of anonymous array-object creation which is pointed by a reference variable "myIntArray", so if we write just "new int[]{1,2,3};" then this is how anonymous array-object can be created.

If we just write:

int[] myIntArray;

this is not declaration of array, but the following statement makes the above declaration complete:

myIntArray=new int[3];
0 votes
answered Jul 9, 2013 by isabella-engineer

There are two types of array.

One Dimensional Array

Syntax for default values:

int[] num = new int[5];

Or (less preferred)

int num[] = new int[5];

Syntax with values given (variable/field initialization):

int[] num = {1,2,3,4,5};

Or (less preferred)

int num[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};

Note: For convenience int[] num is preferable because it clearly tells that you are talking here about array. Otherwise no difference. Not at all.

Multidimensional array


int[][] num = new int[5][2];


int num[][] = new int[5][2];


int[] num[] = new int[5][2];




 int[][] num={ {1,2}, {1,2}, {1,2}, {1,2}, {1,2} };

Ragged Array (or Non-rectangular Array)

 int[][] num = new int[5][];
 num[0] = new int[1];
 num[1] = new int[5];
 num[2] = new int[2];
 num[3] = new int[3];

So here we are defining columns explicitly.
Another Way:

int[][] num={ {1}, {1,2}, {1,2,3,4,5}, {1,2}, {1,2,3} };

For Accessing:

for (int i=0; i<(num.length); i++ ) {
    for (int j=0;j<num[i].length;j++)


for (int[] a : num) {
  for (int i : a) {

Ragged arrays are multidimensional arrays.
For explanation see multidimensional array detail at the official java tutorials

0 votes
answered Jan 20, 2015 by muhammad-suleman

If you want to create arrays using reflections then you can do like this:

 int size = 3;
 int[] intArray = (int[]) Array.newInstance(int.class, size ); 
0 votes
answered May 23, 2015 by hyperneutrino

Take the primitive type int for example. There are several ways to declare and int array:

int[] i = new int[capacity];
int[] i = new int[] {value1, value2, value3, etc};
int[] i = {value1, value2, value3, etc};

where in all of these, you can use int i[] instead of int[] i.

With reflection, you can use (Type[]) Array.newInstance(Type.class, capacity);

Note that in method parameters, ... indicates variable arguments. Essentially, any number of parameters is fine. It's easier to explain with code:

public static void varargs(int fixed1, String fixed2, int... varargs) {...}
varargs(0, "", 100); // fixed1 = 0, fixed2 = "", varargs = {100}
varargs(0, "", 100, 200); // fixed1 = 0, fixed2 = "", varargs = {100, 200};

Inside the method, varargs is treated as a normal int[]. Type... can only be used in method parameters, so int... i = new int[] {} will not compile.

Note that when passing an int[] to a method (or any other Type[]), you cannot use the third way. In the statement int[] i = *{a, b, c, d, etc}*, the compiler assumes that the {...} means an int[]. But that is because you are declaring a variable. When passing an array to a method, the declaration must either be new Type[capacity] or new Type[] {...}.

Multidimensional Arrays

Multidimensional arrays are much harder to deal with. Essentially, a 2D array is an array of arrays. int[][] means an array of int[]s. The key is that if an int[][] is declared as int[x][y], the maximum index is i[x-1][y-1]. Essentially, a rectangular int[3][5] is:

[0, 0] [1, 0] [2, 0]
[0, 1] [1, 1] [2, 1]
[0, 2] [1, 2] [2, 2]
[0, 3] [1, 3] [2, 3]
[0, 4] [1, 4] [2, 4]
0 votes
answered Oct 16, 2015 by ravi

Declaring an array of object references:

class Animal {}

class Horse extends Animal {
    public static void main(String[] args) {

         * Array of Animal can hold Animal and Horse (all subtypes of Animal allowed)
        Animal[] a1 = new Animal[10];
        a1[0] = new Animal();
        a1[1] = new Horse();

         * Array of Animal can hold Animal and Horse and all subtype of Horse
        Animal[] a2 = new Horse[10];
        a2[0] = new Animal();
        a2[1] = new Horse();

         * Array of Horse can hold only Horse and its subtype (if any) and not
           allowed supertype of Horse nor other subtype of Animal.
        Horse[] h1 = new Horse[10];
        h1[0] = new Animal(); // Not allowed
        h1[1] = new Horse();

         * This can not be declared.
        Horse[] h2 = new Animal[10]; // Not allowed
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