How can I configure my makefile for debug and release builds?

0 votes
asked Jul 3, 2009 by samoz

I have the following makefile for my project, and I'd like to configure it for release and debug builds. In my code, I have lots of #ifdef DEBUG macros in place, so it's simply a matter of setting this macro and adding the -g3 -gdwarf2 flags to the compilers. How can I do this?

$(CC) = g++ -g3 -gdwarf2
$(cc) = gcc -g3 -gdwarf2

all: executable

executable: CommandParser.tab.o CommandParser.yy.o Command.o
    g++ -g -o output CommandParser.yy.o CommandParser.tab.o Command.o -lfl

CommandParser.yy.o: CommandParser.l 
    flex -o CommandParser.yy.c CommandParser.l
    gcc -g -c CommandParser.yy.c

CommandParser.tab.o: CommandParser.y
    bison -d CommandParser.y
    g++ -g -c CommandParser.tab.c

Command.o: Command.cpp
    g++ -g -c Command.cpp

clean:
    rm -f CommandParser.tab.* CommandParser.yy.* output *.o

Just to clarify, when I say release/debug builds, I want to be able to just type make and get a release build or make debug and get a debug build, without manually commenting out things in the makefile.

8 Answers

0 votes
answered Jan 3, 2009 by stobor

Completing the answers from earlier... You need to reference the variables you define info in your commands...

DEBUG ?= 1
ifeq (DEBUG, 1)
    CFLAGS =-g3 -gdwarf2 -DDEBUG
else
    CFLAGS=-DNDEBUG
endif

CXX = g++ $(CFLAGS)
CC = gcc $(CFLAGS)

all: executable

executable: CommandParser.tab.o CommandParser.yy.o Command.o
    $(CXX) -o output CommandParser.yy.o CommandParser.tab.o Command.o -lfl

CommandParser.yy.o: CommandParser.l 
    flex -o CommandParser.yy.c CommandParser.l
    $(CC) -c CommandParser.yy.c

CommandParser.tab.o: CommandParser.y
    bison -d CommandParser.y
    $(CXX) -c CommandParser.tab.c

Command.o: Command.cpp
    $(CXX) -c Command.cpp

clean:
    rm -f CommandParser.tab.* CommandParser.yy.* output *.o
0 votes
answered Jul 3, 2009 by david-cournapeau

If by configure release/build, you mean you only need one config per makefile, then it is simply a matter and decoupling CC and CFLAGS:

CFLAGS=-DDEBUG
#CFLAGS=-O2 -DNDEBUG
CC=g++ -g3 -gdwarf2 $(CFLAGS)

Depending on whether you can use gnu makefile, you can use conditional to make this a bit fancier, and control it from the command line:

DEBUG ?= 1
ifeq (DEBUG, 1)
    CFLAGS =-DDEBUG
else
    CFLAGS=-DNDEBUG
endif

.o: .c
    $(CC) -c $< -o $@ $(CFLAGS)

and then use:

make DEBUG=0
make DEBUG=1

If you need to control both configurations at the same time, I think it is better to have build directories, and one build directory / config.

0 votes
answered Jul 3, 2009 by tiberiu

you can have a variable

DEBUG = 0

then you can use a conditional statement

  ifeq ($(DEBUG),1)

  else

  endif
0 votes
answered Jul 3, 2009 by stobor

Note that you can also make your Makefile simpler, at the same time:

DEBUG ?= 1
ifeq (DEBUG, 1)
    CFLAGS =-g3 -gdwarf2 -DDEBUG
else
    CFLAGS=-DNDEBUG
endif

CXX = g++ $(CFLAGS)
CC = gcc $(CFLAGS)

EXECUTABLE = output
OBJECTS = CommandParser.tab.o CommandParser.yy.o Command.o
LIBRARIES = -lfl

all: $(EXECUTABLE)

$(EXECUTABLE): $(OBJECTS)
    $(CXX) -o $@ $^ $(LIBRARIES)

%.yy.o: %.l 
    flex -o $*.yy.c $<
    $(CC) -c $*.yy.c

%.tab.o: %.y
    bison -d $<
    $(CXX) -c $*.tab.c

%.o: %.cpp
    $(CXX) -c $<

clean:
    rm -f $(EXECUTABLE) $(OBJECTS) *.yy.c *.tab.c

Now you don't have to repeat filenames all over the place. Any .l files will get passed through flex and gcc, any .y files will get passed through bison and g++, and any .cpp files through just g++.

Just list the .o files you expect to end up with, and Make will do the work of figuring out which rules can satisfy the needs...

for the record:

  • $@ The name of the target file (the one before the colon)

  • $< The name of the first (or only) prerequisite file (the first one after the colon)

  • $^ The names of all the prerequisite files (space separated)

  • $* The stem (the bit which matches the % wildcard in the rule definition.

0 votes
answered Jul 3, 2009 by david-lin

You can use Target-specific Variable Values. Example:

CXXFLAGS = -g3 -gdwarf2
CCFLAGS = -g3 -gdwarf2

all: executable

debug: CXXFLAGS += -DDEBUG -g
debug: CCFLAGS += -DDEBUG -g
debug: executable

executable: CommandParser.tab.o CommandParser.yy.o Command.o
    $(CXX) -o output CommandParser.yy.o CommandParser.tab.o Command.o -lfl

CommandParser.yy.o: CommandParser.l 
    flex -o CommandParser.yy.c CommandParser.l
    $(CC) -c CommandParser.yy.c

Remember to use $(CXX) or $(CC) in all your compile commands.

Then, 'make debug' will have extra flags like -DDEBUG and -g where as 'make' will not.

On a side note, you can make your Makefile a lot more concise like other posts had suggested.

0 votes
answered Jul 4, 2009 by jespere

I agree with @davidlin, use target-specific variables to set different flags for each config. However, you probably also want to place your output files in separate directories, so that you can build different configs without rebuilding everything. Using @davidlin's example, you could do:

debug: CONFIG=debug

debug: executable

executable: output/$(CONFIG)/myprog

# Always use "$@" when referring to the target file.
output/$(CONFIG)/myprog: ... 
        $(CXX) ... -o $@
0 votes
answered Jul 29, 2013 by ffhaddad

This question has appeared often when searching for a similar problem, so I feel a fully implemented solution is warranted. Especially since I (and I would assume others) have struggled piecing all the various answers together.

Below is a sample Makefile which supports multiple build types in separate directories. The example illustrated shows debug and release builds.

Supports ...

  • separate project directories for specific builds
  • easy selection of a default target build
  • silent prep target to create directories needed for building the project
  • build-specific compiler configuration flags
  • GNU Make's natural method of determining if project requires a rebuild
  • pattern rules rather than the obsolete suffix rules

#
# Compiler flags
#
CC     = gcc
CFLAGS = -Wall -Werror -Wextra

#
# Project files
#
SRCS = file1.c file2.c file3.c file4.c
OBJS = $(SRCS:.c=.o)
EXE  = exefile

#
# Debug build settings
#
DBGDIR = debug
DBGEXE = $(DBGDIR)/$(EXE)
DBGOBJS = $(addprefix $(DBGDIR)/, $(OBJS))
DBGCFLAGS = -g -O0 -DDEBUG

#
# Release build settings
#
RELDIR = release
RELEXE = $(RELDIR)/$(EXE)
RELOBJS = $(addprefix $(RELDIR)/, $(OBJS))
RELCFLAGS = -O3 -DNDEBUG

.PHONY: all clean debug prep release remake

# Default build
all: prep release

#
# Debug rules
#
debug: $(DBGEXE)

$(DBGEXE): $(DBGOBJS)
    $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(DBGCFLAGS) -o $(DBGEXE) $^

$(DBGDIR)/%.o: %.c
    $(CC) -c $(CFLAGS) $(DBGCFLAGS) -o $@ $<

#
# Release rules
#
release: $(RELEXE)

$(RELEXE): $(RELOBJS)
    $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(RELCFLAGS) -o $(RELEXE) $^

$(RELDIR)/%.o: %.c
    $(CC) -c $(CFLAGS) $(RELCFLAGS) -o $@ $<

#
# Other rules
#
prep:
    @mkdir -p $(DBGDIR) $(RELDIR)

remake: clean all

clean:
    rm -f $(RELEXE) $(RELOBJS) $(DBGEXE) $(DBGOBJS)
0 votes
answered Jan 14, 2016 by user1867459

ifeq (DEBUG, 1) should be replaced with ifeq ($(DEBUG), 1).

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